In 1992, President George H.W. Bush joined 107 other heads of state at the Earth Summit in Rio, Brazil, to adopt a series of environmental agreements, including the UNFCCC framework, which is still in force today. The international treaty aims to prevent dangerous human interference in Earth`s climate systems in the long term. The Pact does not set limits on greenhouse gas emissions for each country and does not include enforcement mechanisms, but rather provides a framework for international negotiations on future agreements or protocols to set binding emission targets. Participating countries meet annually for a Conference of the Parties (COP) to assess their progress and continue discussions on how best to tackle climate change. The implementation of the agreement by all member countries will be evaluated every 5 years, the first evaluation will take place in 2023. The result will serve as a contribution to new Nationally Determined Contributions by Member States.  The assessment is not a contribution/achievement of individual countries, but a collective analysis of what has been achieved and what still needs to be done. The Kyoto Protocol, a landmark environmental treaty adopted at COP3 in Japan in 1997, is the first time that countries have agreed on country-specific emission reduction targets that are legally mandated. The protocol, which only entered into force in 2005, set binding emission reduction targets only for developed countries, based on the assumption that they were responsible for most of the Earth`s high greenhouse gas emissions. The United States first signed the agreement, but never ratified it; President George W.
Bush argued that the deal would hurt the U.S. economy because it would not include developing countries like China and India. Without the participation of these three countries, the effectiveness of the treaty proved limited, as its objectives covered only a small fraction of total global emissions. Under the Paris Agreement, each country must regularly identify, plan and report on its contribution to the fight against global warming.  There is no mechanism requiring a country to set a specific emission target on a specific date, but each target should go beyond the targets set previously. The United States officially withdrew from the agreement the day after the 2020 presidential election, although President-elect Joe Biden said America would join the agreement after his inauguration.  Ultimately, all parties recognized the need to “avoid, minimize and treat loss and damage,” but in particular, any mention of indemnification or liability is excluded.  The Convention also adopts the Warsaw International Mechanism for Loss and Damage, an institution that will seek to answer questions on how to classify, address and share responsibility for losses.  The general scientific opinion is that any increase in global temperatures of more than 2 degrees Celsius would be catastrophic for the Earth – leading to severe natural disasters, melting of the Arctic, and possible mass extinctions. When the entire planet is in danger, it takes the whole world to fight climate change. The ultimate goal of the agreement is to limit the increase in global warming this century to 1.5 degrees Celsius. Although the difference of 0.5 degrees may not seem like much, it would significantly affect low-lying nations and coral reefs.
Although the United States and Turkey are not party to the agreement because they have not declared their intention to withdraw from the 1992 UNFCCC, as Annex 1 countries of the UNFCCC, they will continue to be required to produce national communications and an annual greenhouse gas inventory.  On November 4, 2019, the United States notified the depositary of its withdrawal from the agreement, which is to take effect exactly one year after that date.  Meanwhile, Russia and Brazil, two other countries crucial to fighting climate pollution, have largely distorted the Paris Agreement. In Brazil, under the government of President Jair Bolsonaro, deforestation in the Amazon has risen sharply, releasing huge amounts of carbon stored in trees and underground. The level of NDCs set by each country will set that country`s objectives. However, the “contributions” themselves are not binding under international law because they do not have the specificity, normative character [clarification required] or mandatory language required to create binding norms.  In addition, there will be no mechanism that requires a country to set a target in its NDC by a certain date, and no application if a set target is not achieved in an NDC.   There will only be a “Name and Shame” system, or as János Pásztor, UN Under-Secretary-General for Climate Change, told CBS News (USA), a “Name and Encourage” plan.  Given that the agreement does not foresee any consequences if countries do not comply with their obligations, such a consensus is fragile. A net of nations withdrawing from the deal could trigger the withdrawal of more governments and lead to a total collapse of the deal.  The goal of the agreement is to reduce global warming described in Article 2 and improve the implementation of the UNFCCC by: Following a campaign promise, Trump – a climate denier who claimed that climate change is a “hoax” committed by China – announced in June 2017 his intention to withdraw the United States from the Paris Agreement.
But despite the president`s statement from the rose garden that “we`re going out,” it`s not that easy. The withdrawal process requires the agreement to be in force for three years before a country can formally announce its intention to leave. Then he will have to wait a year before leaving the pact. This means that the United States could officially leave on November 4, 2020 at the earliest, one day after the presidential election. Even a formal withdrawal would not necessarily be permanent, experts say; A future president could return to the board in just one month. The Paris Agreement is an agreement within the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) that addresses mitigation, adaptation to greenhouse gas emissions and financing from 2020 onwards. The agreement aims to address the threat of global climate change by keeping a global temperature increase this century well below 2 degrees Celsius above pre-industrial levels and making efforts to further limit the temperature increase to 1.5 degrees Celsius.  The mix of opposing trends has meant that the progress made possible by the Paris Agreement has been “very gradual,” Hare says. So, to stay below the 2°C warming threshold – or below the 1.5°C limit that vulnerable island states deem necessary to prevent rising seas from swallowing their communities – countries meeting at Saturday`s summit must commit to further reducing emissions. “What needs to happen over the next few years,” Hare says, “is something much more transformative.” Recognizing that many developing countries and small island states that have contributed the least to climate change could suffer the most from its consequences, the Paris Agreement includes a plan for developed countries – and others that are “able to do so” – to continue to provide funds to help developing countries mitigate and increase their resilience to climate change. The agreement builds on financial commitments from the 2009 Copenhagen Accord, which aimed to increase public and private climate finance for developing countries to $100 billion a year by 2020.